Dalilai 6 da suka hana Boko Haram Lalacewa a Nigeria

Wata bakwai da hawansa karagar mulkin Najeria a wa’adinsa na farko a shekara 2015, Shugaba Muhammadu Buhari ya fara ikirarin cewa an ”murkushe” Boko Haram, amma har yanzu kungiyar da rassanta na ci gaba da wanzuwa.

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Sojoji sun yi kokarin kwato wasu yankuna tare da fatattakar mayakan daga wasu wuraren da suke buya.

Amma munin da rikicin ya sake yi a baya-bayan nan a arewa maso gabas, inda kungiyar ta fara tayar da kayar baya a shekarar 2009, ya sa mutane da dama na tambayar takamaimai abin da ya sa har yanzu hukumomi suka gaza shawo kan matsalar.

Kawo yanzu cikin shekarar nan kawai, hare-hare kusan 100 aka kai kan fararen hula da sojoji, a cewar wani kiyasi.

An kashe daruruwan mutane, sannan an sace makamai da kayayyakin abinci da magunguna.

Kwararru sun ce akwai dalilai shida da suka sa aka kasa murkushe kungiyar duk da ikirarin gwamnati.

1: Ba a magance musabbabin matsalar

Dogaron da aka yi sosai a kan karfin soji wajen fuskantar Boko Haram na daga cikin manyan abubuwa da suka sa gwamnati ta kasa shawo kan wannan barazana, kamar yadda wani mai sharhi kan tsaro na kamfanin tsaro Beacon Consulting, Kabiru Adamu ya ce.

Woman standing in front of a thatched hut
Bayanan hoto,Dubun-dubatar mutane ne suka tsere daga gidajensu suke kuma zaune a sansanonin ‘yan gudun hijira a yanzu

Ya shaida wa BBC cewa: “Shi ya sa abin takaici, kusan shekara 11 ko 12 da fara yakin, har yanzu ba a ganin manyan nasarori.”

“Tabbas, sojojin na iya fatattakar ‘yan ta’addan amma saboda har yanzu suna iya nuna tasirinsu, suna iya daukar sabbin mayaka, suna iya samun kudade, suna kuma iya samun makamai, to sai ka ga sun sake tattaruwa da karfi”

Kwararru sun ce ba wai mutanen yankin arewa maso gabas na goyon bayan Boko Haram da ISWAP ba ne, amma rashin kulawar hukumomi da kuma tsananin halin kaka-ni-ka-yi su ne suke sa wasu lokutan mutane kan fada hannun mayakan su yi amfani da su wajen yaki.

“Maganar gaskiya ita ce idan ana so a magance tayar da kayar baya ko ta’addanci, ba karfin soji kawai ake bukata ba.

Akwai bukatar a magance musabbabin matsalar tayar da kayar bayan,” a cewar Malam Adamu.

“Sai dai abin kaico, ba mu ga wani kokarin a zo a gani ba a wannan bangaren.”

Ya yi nuni da rashin shugabanci nagari wanda ya sanya mutane da dama cikin bakin talauci, da matukar bacin rai da kuma rashin ilmi a matsayin ”wani babban musabbin matsalar”

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Akwai manyan tsare-tsare da gwamnati ta samar don hanzarta samar da ci gaba a arewa maso gabas, amma ba a cimma wani abin a zo a gani ba a wannan yunkuri.

Sannan akwai Tsarin Yaki da Ta’addanci na Kasa wato National Counter-Terrorism Strategy, wanda ya hada da kawo ci gaban tattalin arziki da kokarin kawar da tsattsauran ra’ayi ko tunani, baya ga girke dakaru a fagagen daga. Amma Malam Kabiru ya ce ga alama ba a cikakken amfani da tsarin.

Wasu masu sharhin kamar Bulama Bukarti na Cibiyar Bincike da Kawo Sauyi a Duniya ta Tony Blair, ya ce yayin da ake kokarin sauya dabi’un mayakan Boko Haram da suka mika wuya, ya kamata a ga karuwar ayyukana soji kamar irin yadda aka gani a Iraki da Syria a lokacin da aka murkushe kungiyar IS da ”daularta.”

2: Yadda Boko Haram ke iya ci gaba da daukar mayaka

Hare-Haren Boko Haram a Najeriya. Daga 2014-2021.  Alƙalumman 2021 daga watan Afrilu.

Tsananin talauci a wasu sassan yankin da kuma salon mugunta da tashin hankali na masu tayar da kayar bayan, sun sa kungiyar na ci gaba da dukar mayaka tana kuma toho, a cewar kwararru.

“Mutane a shirye suke a shigar da su kungiyar, kawai don su rayu,” a cewar wani masanin tsaro Abdullahi Yalwa, inda yake ba da misalai da matsalar aikin yi da rashin shugabanci nagari.

Barista Bukarti kuma ya yi nuni da yadda Boko Haram ke da “tsarin amfani da karfi wajen shigar da matasa kungiyar.”

Shi ma Gwamnan jihar Borno Babagana Zulum kwanan baya ya shaida wa BBC cewa masu tayar da kayar bayan na shigar da ‘yan gudun hijira cikin kungiyar – wato mutanen da tun farko rikicin ya tilasta wa barin gidajensu.

3: Karancin makamai

Military commanders inspect arms and ammunitions recovered from Boko Haram jihadists on display at the headquarters of the 120th Battalion in Goniri, Yobe State, in Nigeria's restive northeast on July 3, 2019
Bayanan hoto,Nan wani hoto ne lokacin da rundunar soji ta samu nasarar kwato wasu makamai daga Boko Haram a shekarar 2019

Ko da an zo batun fafatawa a fagen daga, akwai matsalar makamai, a cewar Mista Adamu, wanda ya ce sojojin ba su da kayan aiki yadda ya kamata.

Wani bincike da kamfaninsa na Beacon Consulting ya yi, ya gano cewa akwai bindigogi manya da kanana kimanin 6,500,000 a Najeriya, amma 586,000 ne kawai ke hannun jami’an tsaro.

Ba wai hakan na nufin masu tayar da kayar bayan ne ke amfani da sauran ba, amma adadin ya nuna cewa akwai dimbin makamai da ba su hannun sojoji.

Malam Adamu ya kuma ce “abin da muke gani bisa hujjoji shi ne ingancin makaman wadannan kungiyoyin ya fi na sojoji”

4: Cin hanci da rashawa

Akwai yiwuwar cin hanci da rashawa na daga cikin abubuwan da ke yi wa rundunar soji tarnaki idan aka zo batun inganta kayan aikinta.

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Ana zargin cewa makudan kudaden da ake kebewa don karfafa yaki da Boko Haram, a karshe kan fada a aljifan jami’ai.

Malam Abdullahi Yalwa ya ce a wasu lokutan ba a yaki da Boko Haram ”tsakani da Allah” kuma ”ga alama wasu mutanen sun mayar da abin kasuwanci kuma suna arzuta kansu da shi.”

A shekarun baya-bayan nan, matakin Amurka na kin sayar wa Najeriya makamai bisa zargin keta hakkin dan adam, ya yi wa rundunar sojin tarnaki.

Shugaba Buhari da tsohon shugaban da ya gada, Goodluck Jonathan, dukkansu sun yi koka da cewa matakin na kawo cikas ga kokarin dakile ta’addancin.

Amma Shugaba Donald Trumo ya janye matakin a shekarar 2018 kuma a sakamakon haka Najeriya na sa ran isowar jiragen yaki na Super Tucano.

Ana kuma fatan hakan zai bunkasa fifikon sojin wajen yaki ta sama, fifikon da Malam Kabiru Adamu ke da ra’ayin cewa a yanzu ba a yin cikakken amfani da shi, kuma ba ya tasirin da ya kamata.

5: Kwalliya ba ta biyan kudin sabulu a dabarun soji

Barista Bukarti ya shaida wa BBC cewa ga alama masu tayar da kayar bayan “sun fahimta kuma sun saba da salon hare-haren soji ta sama” suna kuma amfani da yanayin yankin arewa maso gabas mai sarkakiya wajen kauce wa hare-haren sojoji.

Akwai kuma wasu bangarorin dabarun sojin da su ma ke shan suka.

Misali, cikin fiye da shekara daya da ta gabata rundunar soji ta janye dakarunta daga kananan sansanoni tare da mayar da su manyan sansanoni da aka kirkiro wadanda ake kira Super Camps.

A farkon shekarar 2020 ne aka dauki wannan matakin, sakamakon yawan hare-hare da ‘yan Boko Haram ke kai wa sojoji da kuma kwace makamansu.

Masu sharhi sun ce hakan ya jawo an bar dimbin al’ummomi farar hula kara-zube a yankunansu, ba tare da tsaro ba.

Malam Adamu ya ce: “Muna da shaidu da ke nuna karuwar hare-hare kan al’ummomi daga lokacin da aka kirkiri sansanonin na Super Camps zuwa yanzu.

Don haka, a bayyane yake cewa kafa Super Camps ya bar al’ummomin wasu kauyuka cikin yanayi mai rauni,” in ji shi.

Hakan kuma halin da ake ciki ya ruguza hanyoyin neman abinci na mutanen yankin arewa maso gabashin Najeriya wadada suka dogara a kan kamun kifi da noma, kuma hakan na tasiri kan kokarin samar da abinci.

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Sannan masana na cewa ga alama rundunar soji na da nakasu wajen tattara bayanan sirri da kuma amfani da su, sannan ta gaza toshe hanyoyin zurarewar bayanai kan matakanta na yaki.

Hakan na nufin a wasu lokutan ”masu tayar da kayar bayan kan riga sojojin farga,” a cewar Malam Yalwa.

To sai dai kuma, rundunar sojin Najeriya kan yi watsi da ikirarin irin wadannan matsaloli. Mai magana da yawun rundunar sojin Mohammed Yarima a baya-bayan nan cikin wata sanarwa ya ce: “dakaru na cikin azamar yaki kuma sun dukufa kamar a kowane lokaci domin kawar da gyauren ‘yan ta’addan Boko Haram daga yankin da ma kasar”

6: Tasirin Boko Haram na ƙara yaɗuwa

Wani karin ƙalubale a ƙoƙarin kawar da Boko Haram shi ne yadda ayyukanta ke yaɗuwa daga arewa maso gabas zuwa wasu yankunan kasar.

Akwai damuwa kan cewa Boko Haram na kulla alaka da gungu-gungun ‘yan bindiga masu satar mutane domin karbar kudin fansa a wasu yankuna musamman arewa maso yamma da kuma arewa ta tsakiyar kasar.

A bara, Boko Haram ta fitar da wani bidiyo wanda a cikinsa ta yi ikirarin cewa ta shiga jihar Neja, wacce ke da nisa daga ainihin yankin da ta saba gudanar da ayyukanta – wato arewa maso gabas.

Hukumomin jihar ta Neja sun fitar da sanarwa a watan Maris da ke cewa mayakan Boko Haram sun shiga jihar tare da mamaye dazuzzukan da ke cikinta – suna kai hare-hare kan al’ummomi. Shi ma gwamnan jihar Nasarawa dake arewa ta tsakiya, Abdullahi Sule, a baya ya ce ‘yan kungiyar ta Boko Haram sun bazu zuwa jihar.

A watan Disamba, babban hafsan rundunar sojin kasa ta Najeriya a wancan lokacin – Laftanar Janar Tukur Buratai ya ce ana iya shafe shekara 20 nan gaba ana yaki da kungiyar Boko Haram, idan har ba a hada kai wajen daukar matakan soji da na farar hula ba.

To amma mazauna yankunan da rikicin na Boko Haram ya shafa za su yi fatan yakin ba zai tsawaita, kamar yadda tsohon shugaban rundunar sojin ya yi gargadi ba.